Chinese State Security officials display copies of the Counterespionage Law

The detailed implementing regulations for the Counterespionage Law were issued in Chinese on 6 December.  Below is a rush translation which I will update ASAP with any corrections that seem necessary.

Foreigners visiting and living in China and foreign companies doing business there should pay special attention to these parts:

Articles 6 and 7, noting that these regulations apply to persons in China and abroad.  This may indicate an ambition to apply the Counterespionage Act to activities overseas.

Article 8, “Behaviors endangering state security other than espionage,” including “Fabricating or distorting facts, publishing or disseminating words or information that endanger state security, or making, distributing or publishing audio-visual products or other publications endangering state security.”  Does this mean that the Act could apply to people overseas who write about China in ways that run counter to official views?

Articles 9 and 24, which apply to foreigners in the PRC and may be used to restrict entry and exit.

Article 22, which mandates cooperation with the State Security organs by citizens and organizations.

It is interesting that state security and public security authorities are referred to as “organs” (jigou) rather than by their formal names as ministries (i.e.: The Ministry of State Security and the Ministry of Public Security).  This is speculation, but it could indicate that the regulations were written with a future reorganization in mind.



Xinhua News Agency, Beijing, December 6


People’s Republic of China Counterespionage Law Implementation Regulations



Chapter I. General Provisions


第一条 根据《中华人民共和国反间谍法》(以下简称《反间谍法》),制定本实施细则。

Article 1. The present Implementing Regulations shall be formulated in accordance with the “Counterespionage Law of the People’s Republic of China” (hereinafter referred to as the “Counterespionage Act”).


第二条 国家安全机关负责本细则的实施。

Article 2. The State Security organ is responsible for the implementation of these detailed regulations.



Other relevant departments such as Public Security and confidential administrative departments and relevant departments of the armed forces shall, in accordance with their duties and responsibilities, work closely with each other to strengthen coordination and do a good job in accordance with the law.


第三条 《反间谍法》所称“境外机构、组织”包括境外机构、组织在中华人民共和国境内设立的分支(代表)机构和分支组织;所称“境外个人”包括居住在中华人民共和国境内不具有中华人民共和国国籍的人。

Article 3. “Offshore institutions and organizations” as mentioned in the “Counterespionage Act” include branches and representative offices and branches organized by overseas institutions and organizations within the territory of the People’s Republic of China. The term “foreign individuals” includes individuals residing in the territory of the People’s Republic of China People who are not PRC nationals.



第四条 《反间谍法》所称“间谍组织代理人”,是指受间谍组织或者其成员的指使、委托、资助,进行或者授意、指使他人进行危害中华人民共和国国家安全活动的人。

Article 4. Under the “Counterespionage Act,” alleged “agents of espionage organizations,” refers to persons who are instructed, entrusted, sponsored, conducted or given instruction by any espionage organization or its members to direct others to endanger the state security activities of the People’s Republic of China.



Espionage organizations and those representing them are to be confirmed (in their identity and activities) by the responsible State Security organ under the State Council.


第五条 《反间谍法》所称“敌对组织”,是指敌视中华人民共和国人民民主专政的政权和社会主义制度,危害国家安全的组织。

Article 5. Alleged “hostile organizations” as referred to under the “Counterespionage Act” refers to an organization that hostile to the regime and socialist system of the People’s Democratic Dictatorship of the People’s Republic of China that endangers state security.



Hostile organizations are confirmed by the State Security or Public Security organs under the under the State Council.


第六条 《反间谍法》所称“资助”实施危害中华人民共和国国家安全的间谍行为,是指境内外机构、组织、个人的下列行为:

Article 6. Under the Counterespionage Act”, the term “assisting” the implementation of espionage that endangers the state security of the People’s Republic of China refers to the following acts of institutions, organizations and individuals at home and abroad:



(1) To provide funds, places and materials to the organizations and individuals that conduct espionage;



(2) To provide organizations or individuals with funds, premises and materials for the implementation of espionage.



第七条 《反间谍法》所称“勾结”实施危害中华人民共和国国家安全的间谍行为,是指境内外组织、个人的下列行为:

Article 7. Under the Counterespionage Act, “collusion” refers to carrying out acts of espionage that endanger the state security of the People’s Republic of China by the following acts, (which may be) committed by organizations and individuals both at home and abroad:



(1) jointly planning or carrying out espionage activities endangering state security with overseas institutions, organizations and individuals;



(2) To receive funding or instructions from overseas institutions, organizations or individuals to carry out espionage activities that endanger state security;



(3) To establish contacts with overseas institutions, organizations and individuals and obtain support, help and conduct espionage activities that endanger state security.


第八条 下列行为属于《反间谍法》第三十九条所称“间谍行为以外的其他危害国家安全行为”:

Article 8. The following actions fall under Article 39 of the Counterespionage Act, “Behaviors endangering state security other than espionage”:



(1) To organize, plan and implement the plan to split the country, undermine the unification of the country, subvert state power, or overthrow the socialist system;



(2) To organize, plan and carry out terrorist activities that endanger state security;




(3) Fabricating or distorting facts, publishing or disseminating words or information that endanger state security, or making, distributing or publishing audio-visual products or other publications endangering state security;



(4) Making use of the establishment of social organizations or enterprises and institutions to carry out activities endangering state security;



(5) Using religious activities to endanger state security;



(6) Organizing and using evil cults to carry out activities endangering state security;



(7) Create ethnic disputes, incite ethnic disintegration and endanger state security;



(8) A foreign individual violating the relevant provisions by ignoring dissuasion, attending meetings without permission, personally meeting with anyone in the territory (of the PRC) who has committed a serious act of endangering state security or who is seriously suspected of endangering state security.


第二章 国家安全机关在反工作中的职权

Chapter II: The Authority of the State Security Organs in Counterespionage Work


第九条 境外个人被认为入境后可能进行危害中华人民共和国国家安全活动的,国务院国家安全主管部门可以决定其在一定时期内不得入境。

Article 9. If a foreigner is deemed likely to endanger the state security of the People’s Republic of China after entering its territory, the State Security organs under the State Council may decide to not allow that person to remain in the PRC for certain period of time.


第十条 对背叛祖国、危害国家安全的犯罪嫌疑人,依据《反间谍法》第八条的规定,国家安全机关可以通缉、追捕。

Article 10. State Security organs may hunt down and arrest criminal suspects who betray the motherland and endanger the security of the State under Article 8 of these regulations of the Counterespionage Act.


第十一条 国家安全机关依法执行反间谍工作任务时,有权向有关组织和人员调查询问有关情况。

Article 11. When conducting the tasks of counterespionage work according to the law, the organs of State Security shall have the right to investigate and inquire about relevant situations with relevant organizations and personnel.


第十二条 国家安全机关工作人员依法执行反间谍工作任务时,对发现身份不明、有危害国家安全行为的嫌疑人员,可以检查其随带物品。

Article 12. When conducting counterespionage tasks according to the law, staff members of State Security organs may inspect the belongings of suspects with unknown identities who are thought to endanger state security.


第十三条 国家安全机关执行反间谍工作紧急任务的车辆,可以配置特别通行标志和警灯、警报器。

Article 13.   State Security organs can configure their vehicles with special traffic signs and sirens when carrying out counterespionage tasks.


第十四条 国家安全机关工作人员依法执行反间谍工作任务的行为,不受其他组织和个人的非法干涉。

Article 14. State Security staff are not to be subjected to unlawful interference from other organizations and individuals when carrying out lawful counterespionage work.



When conducting counterespionage tasks according to law, the personnel of the State Security organs shall present official credentials or other corresponding documents.



State Security organs and their staff shall strictly act according to law in their work and shall not overstep their powers, abuse their powers, and violate the legitimate rights and interests of organizations and individuals.


第三章 公民和国家安全的义务

Chapter III. Obligations and Rights of Citizens and Organizations in Safeguarding State Security


第十五条 机关、团体和其他组织对本单位的人员进行维护国家安全的教育,动员、组织本单位的人员防范、制止间谍行为的工作,应当接受国家安全机关的协调和指导。

Article 15 Institutions, organizations and other organizations should educate their personnel on the maintenance of state security, mobilize and organize personnel in their own units to guard against and stop acts of espionage, and should accept the coordination and guidance of the state security organs.



If (State) organs, groups and other organizations fail to fulfill their obligations under the “Counterintelligence Act” and these Detailed Regulations, or are not in accordance with rectification requirements, then State Security organs may interview the person in charge and notify their superiors to promote the implementation of the prevention of espionage and other acts endangering state security.


第十六条 下列情形属于《反间谍法》第七条所称“重大贡献”:

Article 16. The following situations qualify under the “significant contribution” referred to in Article 7 of the “Counterespionage Act”:



(1) Provide important clues for the State Security organs to discover and crack down on criminal cases that seriously endanger state security;



(2) Provide the state security organs with important information to prevent and stop acts that seriously endanger state security;



(3) Coordinate closely with the state security organs as they carry out state security work responsibilities in an outstanding manner;



(4) Safeguard state security and engage in struggle against criminals who endanger the security of the country in an outstanding manner;



(5) Achieve remarkable results in educating, mobilizing and organizing personnel of their own units to prevent and stop acts that endanger state security.


第十七条 《反间谍法》第二十四条所称“非法持有属于国家秘密的文件、资料和其他物品”是指:

Article 17. The “illegal possession of documents, materials and other articles derived from state secrets” as referred to in Article 24 of the “Counterespionage Act” includes:



(1) Persons unaware that they are carrying or storing documents, materials and other articles derived from state secrets;



(2) Persons who are aware that they are carrying documents, materials and other articles derived from state secrets who do so privately without observing formalities.


第十八条 《反间谍法》第二十五条所称“专用间谍器材”,是指进行间谍活动特殊需要的下列器材:

Article 18 . The term “special espionage equipment” as mentioned in Article 25 of the “Counterespionage Act” refers to the following special equipment for espionage:



(A) Covert eavesdropping and covert camera equipment;



(B) Burst transceivers, one-time pad codebooks, and tools for secret writing;



(C) Electronic monitoring and interception equipment used for collecting intelligence;



(D) Other special espionage equipment.



The confirmation of special espionage equipment shall be under the responsibility of the responsible State Security department under the State Council.


第四章 法律

Chapter IV Legal Liability


第十九条 实施危害国家安全的行为,由有关部门依法予以处分,国家安全机关也可以予以警告;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

Article 19. Any act that endangers state security shall be punished according to law by the relevant department, and the State Security organ may also give a warning. If a crime is constituted, criminal responsibility shall be investigated according to law.


第二十条 下列情形属于《反间谍法》第二十七条所称“立功表现”:

Article 20. The following situations constitute “meritorious performance” as referred to in Article 27 of the “Counterespionage Act”:



“Significant meritorious service” displays a particularly important role in the work of state security within the performance of merits as set forth in the preceding paragraph.



(1) Uncovering and reporting the truth about other criminals who endanger the security of the country;



(2) Provide important clues and evidence so that acts endangering state security can be discovered and stopped;



(3) Assisting the State Security and judicial organs in capturing other criminals who endanger state security;



(4) Other acts that have an important role in assisting the State Security organs in safeguarding state security.


第二十一条 有证据证明知道他人有间谍行为,或者经国家安全机关明确告知他人有危害国家安全的犯罪行为,在国家安全机关向其调查有关情况、收集有关证据时,拒绝提供的,依照《反间谍法》第二十九条的规定处理。

Article 21. Where there is evidence showing that someone has engaged in espionage or that the State Security organ explicitly notifies others of crimes that endanger state security, if those approached for evidence refuse to provide it then this is handled under Article 29 of the Counterespionage Act.


第二十二条 国家安全机关依法执行反间谍工作任务时,公民和组织依法有义务提供便利条件或者其他协助,拒不提供或者拒不协助,构成故意阻碍国家安全机关依法执行反间谍工作任务的,依照《反间谍法》第三十条的规定处罚。

Article 22. When State Security organs carry out the tasks of Counterespionage work in accordance with the law, and citizens and organizations who are obliged to provide facilities or other assistance according to the law refuse to do so, this constitutes an intention to obstruct the state security organs from carrying out the tasks of Counterespionage work according to law; Article 13 of the “Counterespionage Act” prescribes punishments.



第二十三条 故意阻碍国家安全机关依法执行反间谍工作任务,造成国家安全机关工作人员人身伤害或者财物损失的,应当依法承担赔偿责任,并由司法机关或者国家安全机关依照《反间谍法》第三十条的规定予以处罚。

Article 23. Anyone deliberately hindering State Security organs from carrying out counterespionage tasks according to law and causing personal injury or property damage to the staff of State Security organs shall bear liability for compensation and shall be punished in accordance with Article 30 of these Regulations.


第二十四条 对涉嫌间谍行为的人员,国家安全机关可以决定其在一定期限内不得出境。对违反《反间谍法》的境外个人,国务院国家安全主管部门可以决定限期离境或者驱逐出境,并决定其不得入境的期限。被驱逐出境的境外个人,自被驱逐出境之日起10年内不得入境。

Article 24. State Security organs may decide to stop those suspected of espionage from departing the country for a certain period of time. Foreigners who violate the “Counterespionage Act” may also be restricted by State Security organs under the State Council from departing or entering the country for a period of time. Foreigners who have been deported may not enter China within 10 years of the day they were deported.


(受权发布)中华人民共和国国务院令 第692号

Authorized under Order 692 of the PRC State Council


第五章 附

Chapter V Supplementary Provisions


第二十五条 国家安全机关、公安机关依照法律、行政法规和国家有关规定,履行防范、制止和惩治间谍行为以外的其他危害国家安全行为的职责,适用本细则的有关规定。

Article 25. Organs of State Security and Public Security shall, in accordance with laws, administrative regulations and the relevant provisions of the State, fulfill their duties of preventing, deterring and punishing acts of endangering state security other than espionage, and shall apply the relevant provisions of these Regulations.


第二十六条 本细则自公布之日起施行。1994年6月4日国务院发布的《中华人民共和国国家安全法实施细则》同时废止。

Article 26. These Detailed Regulations shall come into force on the day they are issued. The “Implementation Rules of the PRC State Security Law” promulgated by the State Council on June 4, 1994 will be simultaneously abolished.